Thursday, 6 August 2015

Algoma's Great Lakes Drainage Basin: Streams and Waterbodies

Contents


1 Introduction
2 Methods of Collection
3 Legend
4 The Waterbody Data and Interactive Map
5 Observations
  • 5.1 Drainage
  • 5.2 Lake Charr Waterbodies
6 Glossary
7 References


1 Introduction


This article analyzes the waterbodies and drainage basins situated within the District of Algoma's Great Lakes drainage basin with a focus on freshwater charr (i.e., lake charr [Salvelinus namaycush] and brook charr [Salvelinus fontinalis]).

Northern Ontario, where the District of Algoma is situated, is one of the two most general sub-provincial geographical and administrative divisions within the province of Ontario. These two divisions contrast markedly from each other with Northern Ontario constituting 87% of the province's land area but only 6% of the population. It is divided up into large, sparsely populated administrative districts opposed to the smaller and more densely populated administrative counties which constitute Southern Ontario.

The boundaries of the province of Ontario are highlighted in red. The approximate division between Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario is demarcated in purple. Background imagery from Google Earth.

Although Sault Ste. Marie is Algoma's seat and is a sizable city containing around 75,000 inhabitants, the district contains 48,810.68 km2 of land and contains only around six other places that possess more than 1,000 inhabitants. Altogether, according to the 2011 census, the district was home to 115,870 inhabitants. If Algoma was a country, it would rank as the second least densely populated country (2.4 people/km2) in the world only ahead of Mongolia (1.9 people/km2).

Algoma's most populated municipalities according to the 2011 census:

  1. Sault Ste. Marie: 75,141 | 64.8%
  2. Elliot Lake: 11,348 | 9.8%
  3. Blind River: 3,549 | 3.1%
  4. Wawa: 2,975 | 2.6%
  5. Thessalon: 1,279 | 1.1%
  6. Hornepayne: 1,050 | 0.9%

Within the six municipalities that contain more than 1,000 inhabitants, together they constitute 95,342 inhabitants and 82.3% of the total population of the district.

With most of the population residing within these places, this means that the majority of the vast territory comprising the district is uninhabited. It is mostly wilderness. Wilderness spotted with logging, mining, a handful of cottages, and a fishing lodge or two. It is a place where the local residents long for the services of more densely populated areas and where visitors excitedly embark on their adventures.

The District of Algoma and its immediate neighbours. The brightest area surrounded by the purple line demarcates the catchment area of all of the streams that empty into the Great Lakes within Algoma. Many of them are long resulting in some overlap into neighbouring districts, primarily that of Sudbury. North of the thick red line is Canada and to the south is the United States, with the state of Michigan being immediately across the border. Wisconsin is present in the extreme bottom left of the image. Background imagery from Google Earth.

The portion of the district that drains into the Great Lakes is characterized by both ancient mountains that have been weathered down over billions of years by glaciation and by the multitude of waterbodies and beaver ponds spattered across the landscape. Many of the waterbodies and beaver ponds within the Great Lakes drainage basin contain highly sought after brook charr and lake charr, both prized by sport fishermen and the later also being prized commercially. This rugged and dynamic landscape has inspired impressionistic painters like the famous Group of Seven.

Satellite imagery showcasing the dynamic landscape of Algoma along with its many waterbodies. The orange colouration is due to the fall colours present when the imagery was taken. Background imagery from Google Earth.

As with the other articles that I produce, this article is a work in progress. I will be expanding and updating it over time.

2 Methods of Collection


The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) was the primary source for nearly all of the data aggregated in this article. Maps from the National Topographic System [3], produced by the federal government, were used to help locate waterbodies, streams, and stream courses. Land use guideline manuals [1] [2], produced by the OMNR, were used to identify which waterbodies contained brook charr, lake charr, and if lake charr were present, what class, if any, the waterbody was designated as. These manuals also provided some data regarding the numbered waterbodies. A website called "Fish ON-Line" [4], which is also produced by the OMNR, was also used to help identify brook charr and lake charr waterbodies, maximum waterbody depths, waterbody names and numbers, and stream courses. Finally, "The Great Outdoors Map", produced by MITIG Forest Services Ltd [5], was used to help identify more lakes based on species whether a name or number were present or not. This last source only covered the Sault Ste. Marie and Blind River OMNR administrative districts and not the other ones analyzed in this article so these districts will have more coverage in this article's data.

There are many issues that arise when aggregating data for these waterbodies. Many waterbodies, especially those that are small, intermittent beaver ponds, or are very difficult to access, are unnamed and as a result, are excluded from the data in this article. The OMNR does number or give unofficial names to some waterbodies, especially if they have stocked them with fish, but despite this, many waterbodies are still left unnamed and are subsequently excluded from this article.

Many of the waterbodies that the OMNR does number or unofficially name are identified with inaccurate coordinates meaning that it was necessary to approximate which waterbody was being referred to. Due to a great deal of ambiguity present in the reports used in the aggregation of this data, some numbered waterbodies were excluded if they lacked both coordinates and an identification as to which township they were situated in.

Not only are there many unnamed waterbodies that are excluded from the data analyzed in this article, many of the named waterbodies haven't been surveyed to provide data as to what fish species are present or as to how deep the waterbody is. Due to these limitations, this article can only do its best to approach an idea of the area surveyed.

The satellite imagery in the figure below showcases a part of the upper reaches of the Mississagi River drainage basin and how none of the waterbodies included in the view have any official or unofficial OMNR names.

The upper reaches of the Mississagi River drainage basin. None of these waterbodies are named. Background imagery from Google Earth.

Nearly every waterbody within the area analyzed in this article is drained by a stream that eventually reaches either Lake Superior or Lake Huron which themselves are subsequently drained by a network of rivers to the ocean. In aggregating data for the streams that drain these waterbodies, a similar naming issue arises in that many streams are also unnamed and subsequently excluded from the data in this article.

Bridal Veil Falls occurs on an unnamed stream that drops into the Agawa Canyon and directly into the Agawa River which subsequently flows into Lake Superior. Photo taken by Billy Wilson (me).

3 Legend


This section describes what each header on the population table in section 5 stands for from left to right. Indicated in parenthesis is what a header's short form stands for.


  • Waterbody: The name waterbody. Official gazetteer names take precedent over other names. [former names], (other names). 
  • Township: The name of the township that the waterbody is mostly situated in. Many waterbodies can stretch over more than one township, especially if they are situated where four townships intersect.
  • OMNR District (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources District): The name of the resource management district that the waterbody is situated in.
  • District: The name of the political administrative district that the waterbody is situated in. 
  • Great Lake: The name of the Great Lake that the waterbody ultimately drains into. There are only three possible entries for this column; Lake Superior, Lake Huron (inclusive of streams that empty into the St. Marys River), or Inland. "Inland" means that there isn't any known surface drainage from the waterbody. For reference regarding the stream nomenclature system, see the figure at the end of this section. 
  • Primary Stream: The name of the stream that empties into one of the Great Lakes that the waterbody drains into.
  • Secondary Stream: If a named stream exists before the water from the waterbody's outlet reaches the primary stream that empties into the Great Lakes, its name is stated here. 
  • Tertiary Stream: If a named stream exists before the water from the waterbody's outlet reaches the secondary stream, its name is stated here.
  • Quaternary Stream: If a named stream exists before the water from the waterbody's outlet reaches the tertiary stream, its name is stated here.
  • Quinary Stream: If a named stream exists before the water from the waterbody's outlet reaches the quaternary stream, its name is stated here.
  • Senary Stream: If a named stream exists before the water from the waterbody's outlet reaches the quinary stream, its name is stated here.
  • Max Depth Metres (Maximum Depth in Metres: The maximum depth of the waterbody in metres. 
  • Max Depth Feet (Maximum Depth in Feet): The maximum depth of the waterbody in feet.
  • Lake Charr: An indication as to whether or not the fish species is present in the waterbody. Some are classified by the OMNR as A1, A2, B1, B2, and C which reflect their productivity in regards to this fish species. These categories are further explained in section 5.2. "N/P" means "not present". 
  • Brook Charr: An indication as to whether or not the fish species is present in the waterbody. The OMNR designates some of waterbodies as containing primarily brook trout. Where this information was available, this is indicated in this column. "N/P" means "not present". 
  • Splake: An indication as to whether or not the fish species is present in the waterbody. "N/P" means "not present". 
  • Rainbow Trout: An indication as to whether or not the fish species is present in the waterbody. "N/P" means "not present". 
  • Brown Trout: An indication as to whether or not the fish species is present in the waterbody. "N/P" means "not present". 


An illustration to help visualize this article's nomenclature system used for streams. You can liken it to a tree. For this tree, the Great Lakes are the ground and the primary stream acts as the trunk. A secondary stream is any stream feeding into the primary stream, a tertiary stream is any stream feeding into a secondary stream, and so on.

4 The Waterbody Data


Within this section is one interactive table and one interactive Google Map. The table has its own independent scroll bars, one on the bottom and one on the right of its interface. You can use them to navigate from column to column and row to row. You can also click on the different headers to sort by them. Beneath the table is the interactive Google Map, close by to allow one to go back and forth easily.

The interactive Google Map can be opened in another window by clicking on the map's name. When it is open in another window you'll be able to type into a search bar that can help you find particular waterbodies. The map has Five different layers that can be toggled on and off when it is open in its own window. Each layer contains markers for a particular section of the area surveyed as described in each layer's title with the exception of the fifth layer. The layer names, in order from top to bottom, are as follows:

  1. West of Mississagi River to South of Montreal River; 
  2. Montreal River north to Michipicoten River, but excluding it; 
  3. Michipicoten River and West to Edge of Algoma; 
  4. Mississagi and East to Edge of Algoma. 
  5. Unnamed Waterbodies

The fifth layer is the most recently added one and contains waterbodies that do not possess a name or number. The data for this layer came from The Great Outdoors Map [5].




5 Observations


To begin with, a few interesting observations. The Marshland River which drains Elliot Lake and numerous other waterbodies is one of the only streams analyzed in the data where a river flows into or becomes a creek. In this case, the Marshland River becomes McCarthy Creek which subsequently flows into the Serpent River. 

The Sister River, which notably drains Rawhide Lake, is called "Red Deer Creek" during a very tiny length of its course between Rottier Lake and McElrea Lake in Viel Township. Names are typically continuous and almost never change to something else and then revert back to a previous name during the course of the same stream. 


The Batchawana River photographed from the railroad crossing. Photo taken by Billy Wilson (me).

5.1 Drainage Observations


Below is a pie chart depicting how many waterbodies flow into each Great Lake. The raw figures were as follows, Lake Superior: 1,490; Lake Huron: 1,279; and Inland: 23.



Pie chart of the distribution of drainage flowing into Lake Superior, Lake Huron, and what is isolated inland.

Below is a table listing all of the primary streams, which Great Lake they flow into, and how many waterbodies each primary stream drains.



Below is a table listing all of the secondary streams, the primary stream each one flows into, the Great Lake they eventually flow into, and how many waterbodies each secondary stream drains.


Below is a table listing all of the tertiary streams, the secondary and primary stream each one flows into, the Great Lake they eventually flow into, and how many waterbodies each tertiary stream drains.



Below is a table listing all of the quaternary streams; the tertiary, secondary, and primary stream each one flows into; the Great Lake they eventually flow into; and how many waterbodies each quaternary stream drains.



Below is a table listing all of the quinary streams; the quaternary, tertiary, secondary, and primary stream each one flows into; the Great Lake they eventually flow into; and how many waterbodies each quinary stream drains.


Below is a table listing all of the senary streams; the quinary, quaternary, tertiary, secondary, and primary stream each one flows into; the Great Lake they eventually flow into; and how many waterbodies each senary stream drains.




A major thing that affects the number of waterbodies drained for secondary streams and subsequently lower orders of streams (i.e., tertiary, quaternary, etc.) is the frequency of how often stream names change. For instance, Crooked Creek, drains McGiverin Lake and flows into Granary Lake who's outflow is named Granary Creek. Crooked Creek and Granary Creek could have been given the same single name which would have resulted in a combined figure for how many streams are drained, but instead since they are named differently, they are totaled separately.

It is also important to keep in mind that the number of waterbodies drained isn't an absolute measurement regarding the size or prominence of a stream. It is however an attribute that can allow for some comparison. Also, keep in mind the limitations of this data. Not all waterbodies are identified and there is a bias towards waterbodies that are closer to human activity being identified.

5.2 Lake Charr Waterbodies

Lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) are a highly sought after fish species for both recreational and commercial purposes. The Great Lakes drainage basin within Algoma contains a significant portion of the lake charr's range which extends across the northern portion of North America from the New England states up to Alaska. Of the 2,792 waterbodies analyzed in this article 504 of them are identified as containing lake charr. That's 18.1% of the lakes.

The OMNR identifies lake charr waterbodies by using a classification system that reflects a particular waterbody's productivity regarding lake charr. According to the MNR Sault Ste. Marie District Land Use Guidelines [1], waterbodies are classified by the following system: 

  • A Waterbodies: 
    • Must have natural reproduction (may be supplemented by stoking).
    • Should have large areas of water under the 18 metre contour (lake charr summer habitat).
    • Should have excellent water quality throughout the water column all year.
  • B Waterbodies: 
    • May have some natural reproduction or may be entirely maintained by planting.
    • May have less water volume available for summer lake charr habitat.
    • May have poorer water quality at some times of the year (i.e., lower PH, some oxygen depletion in late summer etc.).
  • C Waterbodies: 
    • These lakes have ceased to be managed primarily as lake charr waterbodies although some lake charr may still be present. 

  • A and B categories are further divided into A1, A2 and B1, B2 based on land tenure. The A2 and B2 groups are less than 100 percent Crown land (land owned by the government and not under private ownership). 

Lake charr are an indicator species in that they have very high requirements of their habitat in order to survive. This is why water quality is emphasized in the guidelines above.

Of the 504 identified lake charr waterbodies analyzed in this article 378 of them include a maximum depth figure. Below are some lake charr waterbody related statistics pulled from the data. For comparison, the average maximum depth of all of the waterbodies analyzed in the data is 19.9 metres / 65.4 feet.

  • Average Lake charr waterbodies:
    • Number of waterbodies: 494 (378 with depth information)
    • Average depth: 29.5 metres / 96.8 feet 
    • Range: 4.5 metres / 14.8 feet to 119.0 metres / 390.4 feet 
    • Ten deepest waterbodies: 
      1. Manitowik Lake, Debassige Township: 119.0 metres / 390.4 feet | B2
      2. Ten Mile Lake, Beange Township: 117.3 metres / 384.8 feet | A2
      3. Quirke Lake, Buckles Township: 104.0 metres / 341.2 feet | unclassified
      4. Emerald Lake, Mack Township: 91.4 metres / 299.9 feet | A2
      5. Matinenda Lake, Juillette Township: 85.3 metres / 280.0 feet | A2
      6. Ouellette Lake, Buckles Township: 84.0 metres / 275.6 feet | A1
      7. Lauzon Lake, Striker Township: 82.3 metres / 270.0 feet | A2
      8. Rocky Island Lake, Royal Township: 79.8 metres / 261.8 feet | C
      9. Burns Lake, Varley Township: 78.0 metres / 255.9 feet | A2
      10. Dog Lake, West Township: 74.7 metres / 245.1 feet | B2
    • Ten shallowest waterbodies: 
      1. Wishart Lake, Wishart Township: 4.5 metres / 14.8 feet | unclassified
      2. Michell Lake, Tronsen Township: 4.6 metres / 15.1 feet | unclassified
      3. Lower Island Lake, Aweres Township: 4.6 metres / 15.1 feet | unclassified
      4. Legge Lake, Jarvis Township: 4.6 metres / 15.1 feet | unclassified
      5. Picard Lake, Tupper Township: 4.9 metres / 16.1 feet | C
      6. Bojack Lake, Tupper Township: 6.1 metres / 20.0 feet | C
      7. Hoover Lake, Jackson Township: 6.3 metres / 20.7 feet | unclassified
      8. Tower Lake, Aberdeen Additional Township: 7.3 metres / 24.0 feet | unclassified
      9. Sandy Lake, Duncan Township: 7.6 metres / 24.9 feet | C
      10. Green Lake, Beange Township: 8.5 metres / 27.9 feet | B1
  • A1 lake charr waterbodies: 
    • Number of waterbodies: 118 (90 with depth information)
    • Average depth: 33.3 metres / 109.3 feet 
    • Range: 14.3 metres / 46.9 feet to 84.0 metres / 275.6 feet
    • Ten deepest waterbodies: 
      1. Ouellette Lake, Buckles Township: 84.0 metres | 275.6 feet
      2. Augusta Lake, Pukaskwa National Park: 67.4 metres | 221.1 feet
      3. Mishi Lake, Pukaskwa National Park: 65.6 metres | 215.2 feet
      4. Dollyberry Lake, Raimbault Township: 65.5 metres | 214.9 feet
      5. Cobre Lake, Sagard Township: 61.6 metres | 202.1 feet
      6. McCool Lake, Gaiashk Township: 61.6 metres | 202.1 feet
      7. Sesabic Lake, Renwick Township: 61.0 metres | 200.1 feet
      8. Rawhide Lake, Viel Township: 61.0 metres | 200.1 feet
      9. Bay (Coffee) Lake, Timmermans Township: 53.3 metres | 174.9 feet
      10. Summers Lake, Beange Township: 53.3 metres | 174.9 feet
    • Ten shallowest waterbodies: 
      1. Quimby Lake, Bolger Township: 14.3 metres / 46.9 feet 
      2. Doehead Lake, Winkler Township: 16.4 metres / 53.8 feet 
      3. Lake One, Jarvis Township: 16.5 metres / 54.0 feet 
      4. Regal Lake, Varley Township: 17.0 metres / 55.8 feet 
      5. Lance Lake, Patenaude Township: 17.4 metres / 57.1 feet 
      6. Grey Trout Lake, Viel Township: 17.5 metres / 57.4 feet 
      7. Fraser Lake, Iris Township: 18.0 metres / 59.1 feet 
      8. Anvil Lake, Handleman Township: 18.3 metres / 60.0 feet 
      9. Jim Christ / Jimchrist Lake, Raimbault Township: 18.3 metres / 60.0 feet 
      10. Peak Lake, Mack Township: 18.3 metres / 60.0 feet 
  • A2 lake charr waterbodies: 
    • Number of waterbodies: 53 (52 with depth information)
    • Average depth: 46.0 metres / 151.0 feet 
    • Range: 14.6 metres / 47.9 feet to 117.3 metres / 384.8 feet 
    • Ten deepest waterbodies: 
      1. Ten Mile Lake, Beange Township: 117.3 metres / 384.8 feet 
      2. Emerald Lake, Mack Township: 91.4 metres / 299.9 feet 
      3. Matinenda Lake, Juillette Township: 85.3 metres / 280.0 feet 
      4. Lauzon Lake, Striker Township: 82.3 metres / 270.0 feet 
      5. Burns Lake, Varley Township: 78.0 metres / 255.9 feet 
      6. Ranger Lake, Reilly Township: 73.2 metres / 240.2 feet 
      7. Wakwekobi / Big Basswood Lake, Day Township: 73.2 metres / 240.0 feet 
      8. Chiblow / Makomi Lake, Scarfe Township: 70.1 metres / 230.0 feet 
      9. Kirkpatrick / Blue Lake, Sayer Township: 70.1 metres / 230.0 feet 
      10. Flack Lake, Raimbault Township: 70.0 metres / 229.7 feet 
    • Ten shallowest waterbodies: 
      1. Prairie Grass Lake, Carruthers Township: 14.6 metres / 47.9 feet 
      2. Megisan [Magison] Lake, Carton Township: 18.0 metres / 59.0 feet 
      3. Upper Green Lake, Fulton Township: 18.0 metres / 59.1 feet 
      4. Goldie Lake, Hornell Township: 22.0 metres / 72.2 feet 
      5. Slipper Lake, Gunterman Township: 22.9 metres / 75.1 feet 
      6. Patten Lake, Aberdeen Additional Township: 24.4 metres / 80.0 feet 
      7. McMahon Lake, McMahon Township: 27.5 metres / 90.1 feet 
      8. Como Lake, Strathearn Township: 30.0 metres / 98.4 feet 
      9. Mongoose Lake, Vibert Township: 30.5 metres / 100.1 feet 
      10. Granary / Magog Lake, Mack Township: 30.5 metres / 100.1 feet 
  • B1 lake charr waterbodies: 
    • Number of waterbodies: 82 (46 with depth information)
    • Average depth: 24.1 metres / 79.1 feet
    • Range: 8.5 metres / 27.9 feet to 64.1 metres / 210.3 feet 
    • Ten deepest waterbodies: 
      1. Goldie Lake, Dambrossio Township: 64.1 metres / 210.3 feet 
      2. Deep Lake, McMurray Township: 53.4 metres / 175.2 feet 
      3. Upper Bark Lake, Comox Township: 38.0 metres / 124.7 feet 
      4. Big Turkey Lake, Wishart Township: 37.0 metres / 121.4 feet 
      5. Lac Cherie, Pine Township: 36.6 metres / 120.0 feet 
      6. Wagong Lake, Gisborn Township: 35.0 metres / 114.8 feet 
      7. Three Lakes, Wardle Township: 34.2 metres / 112.2 feet 
      8. Tikamaganda Lake, Eaket Township: 33.6 metres / 110.2 feet 
      9. Kettle Lake, Ethel Township: 33.0 metres / 108.3 feet 
      10. Flamingo Lake, Foulds Township: 32.0 metres / 105.0 feet 
    • Ten shallowest waterbodies: 
      1. Green Lake, Beange Township: 8.5 metres / 27.9 feet 
      2. South Lake, Beange Township: 9.2 metres / 30.2 feet 
      3. Labelle Lake, Root Township: 10.7 metres / 35.1 feet 
      4. Survey Lake [Lake #1], Hembruff Township: 11.0 metres / 36.1 feet 
      5. Limit Lake, Ethel Township: 14.0 metres / 45.9 feet 
      6. Navy Lake, Fabbro Township: 14.2 metres / 46.6 feet 
      7. Little Moon Lake, Timmermans Township: 14.2 metres / 46.6 feet 
      8. Gaff Lake, Nicholas Township: 14.3 metres / 46.9 feet 
      9. Stone Lake, Beange Township: 15.0 metres / 49.2 feet 
      10. Duck / Admiral Lake, Juillette Township: 16.2 metres / 53.1 feet 
  • B2 lake charr waterbodies: 
    • Number of waterbodies: 48 (41 with depth information)
    • Average depth: 31.5 metres / 103.5 feet 
    • Range: 16.0 metres / 52.5 feet to 119.0 metres / 390.4 feet 
    • Ten deepest waterbodies: 
      1. Manitowik Lake, Debassige Township: 119.0 metres / 390.4 feet 
      2. Dog Lake, West Township: 74.7 metres / 245.1 feet 
      3. Caribou [Rangers] Lake, Lehman Township: 63.1 metres / 207.0 feet 
      4. Hawk Lake, Esquega Township: 56.4 metres / 185.0 feet 
      5. Anjigami Lake, Nebonaionquet Township: 49.3 metres / 161.7 feet 
      6. Ogas Lake, Redsky Township: 42.1 metres / 138.1 feet 
      7. Devil's [Deil] Lake, Whitman Township: 42.1 metres / 138.0 feet 
      8. North Hubert Lake, Larson Township: 37.5 metres / 123.0 feet 
      9. Esten Lake, Esten Township: 36.0 metres / 118.1 feet 
      10. Trotter Lake, Garden River First Nation Reserve: 34.2 metres / 112.2 feet 
    • Ten shallowest waterbodies: 
      1. Gong Lake, Handleman Township: 16.0 metres / 52.5 feet 
      2. Seymour Lake, Rioux Township: 16.0 metres / 52.5 feet 
      3. Weashkog Lake, Jarvis Township: 16.2 metres / 53.1 feet 
      4. Carpenter Lake, Tronsen Township: 16.2 metres / 53.1 feet 
      5. Pivot Lake, Cowie Township: 16.8 metres / 55.1 feet 
      6. Constance Lake, Parkinson Township: 17.1 metres / 56.1 feet 
      7. Pancake Lake, Kincaid Township: 17.4 metres / 57.1 feet 
      8. Matchinameigus / Trout [Matchinemiegus] Lake, Echum Township: 17.7 metres / 58.1 feet 
      9. Trout Lake, Dablon Township: 18.3 metres / 60.0 feet 
      10. Robertson (Mud) Lake, Van Koughnet Township: 19.2 metres / 63.0 feet 
  • C lake charr waterbodies: 
    • Number of waterbodies: 62 (51 with depth information)
    • Average depth: 19.8 metres / 64.9 feet 
    • Range: 4.9 metres / 16.1 feet to 79.8 metres / 261.8 feet 
    • Ten deepest waterbodies: 
      1. Rocky Island Lake, Royal Township: 79.8 metres / 261.8 feet 
      2. Whitefish Lake, Maness Township: 54.9 metres / 180.0 feet 
      3. Molybdenite Lake, Andre Township: 49.0 metres / 160.8 feet 
      4. Lake Duborne [Lake of the Mountains], Striker: 33.5 metres / 109.9 feet 
      5. Beyond Lake, Worton Township: 30.5 metres / 100.1 feet 
      6. Seabrook Lake, Maeck Township: 30.5 metres / 100.1 feet 
      7. Horseshoe [Bellows] Lake, Deagle Township: 28.0 metres / 91.9 feet 
      8. Chubb Lake, Gaudry Township: 27.5 metres / 90.2 feet 
      9. Wilkie Lake, Nicholas Township: 25.0 metres / 82.0 feet 
      10. Cloudy Lake, Laird Township: 22.9 metres / 75.0 feet 
    • Ten shallowest waterbodies: 
      1. Picard Lake, Tupper Township: 4.9 metres / 16.1 feet 
      2. Bojack Lake, Tupper Township: 6.1 metres / 20.0 feet 
      3. Sandy Lake, Duncan Township: 7.6 metres / 24.9 feet 
      4. Mirror Lake, Butcher Township: 8.6 metres / 28.2 feet 
      5. Affleck Lake, Carton Township: 9.2 metres / 30.2 feet 
      6. Whitman Lake, Daumont Township: 9.5 metres / 31.2 feet 
      7. Skunk Lake, Viel Township: 10.7 metres / 35.1 feet 
      8. White Birch Lake, Jarvis Township: 10.7 metres / 35.1 feet 
      9. Torrance Lake, Ewen Township: 12.2 metres / 40.0 feet 
      10. Vixen Lake, Daumont Township: 12.2 metres / 40.0 feet 
  • Unclassified lake charr waterbodies: 
    • Number of waterbodies: 141 (98 with depth information)
    • Average depth: 24.0 metres / 78.6 feet 
    • Range: 4.5 metres / 14.8 feet to 104.0 metres / 341.2 feet 
    • Ten deepest waterbodies: 
      1. Quirke Lake, Buckles Township: 104.0 metres / 341.2 feet 
      2. Scott Lake, Esquega Township: 63.1 metres / 207.0 feet 
      3. Ellen Lake, Pukaskwa National Park: 57.6 metres / 189.0 feet 
      4. Whiskey Lake, Gaiashk Township: 55.2 metres / 181.1 feet 
      5. Gibberry Lake, Raimbault Township: 54.9 metres / 180.1 feet 
      6. Eaglet Lake, LeGarde Township: 53.4 metres / 175.2 feet 
      7. May Lake, Joubin Township: 47.0 metres / 154.2 feet 
      8. Barbara Lake, Raaflaub Township: 45.0 metres / 147.6 feet 
      9. Big Horseshoe Lake, LeCaron Township: 42.7 metres / 140.1 feet 
      10. Catfish Lake, Bailloquet Township: 40.3 metres / 132.2 feet 
    • Ten shallowest waterbodies: 
      1. Wishart Lake, Wishart Township: 4.5 metres / 14.8 feet 
      2. Legge Lake, Jarvis Township: 4.6 metres / 15.1 feet 
      3. Mitchell Lake, Tronsen Township: 4.6 metres / 15.1 feet 
      4. Lower Island Lake, Aweres Township: 4.6 metres / 15.1 feet 
      5. Hoover Lake, Jackson Township: 6.3 metres / 20.7 feet 
      6. Tower Lake, Aberdeen Additional Township: 7.3 metres / 24.0 feet 
      7. Elizabeth Lake, Duncan Township: 8.5 metres / 27.9 feet 
      8. Heyden Lake [Heyden Lake #1], Aweres Township: 8.5 metres / 27.9 feet 
      9. Lost Lake, Foulds Township: 9.3 metres / 30.5 feet 
      10. Horne Lake, Gunterman Township: 9.5 metres / 31.2 feet 

When looking over these statistics, it isn't surprising to see that C class lake charr waterbodies tend to be the shallowest as the fish species typically requires a waterbody with a relatively significant depth. 


A pie chart showcasing the distribution of lake charr waterbodies by class.

6 Glossary


Stream: A continuous or intermittent flow of water that typically utilizes a predictable path. 
Waterbody: A relatively static collection of water that is typically held inside of a land depression or  is created by blocking a stream (i.e., a dam).
OMNR (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources): The governmental body in the Canadian province of Ontario that oversees things pertaining to land usage and natural resources. 
Lake Charr (Salvelinus namaycush): A naturally occurring freshwater salmonid species that is native to the Algoma area.
Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis): A naturally occurring freshwater salmonid species that is native to the Algoma area
Splake (Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis): An artificial cross between brook charr and lake charr that is stocked in lakes for sport fishing. They are typically sterile although some populations can be naturally occurring.
Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): A salmonid species that was artificially introduced to Algoma and the surrounding area.
Brown Trout (Salmo trutta): A salmonid species that was artificially introduced to Algoma and the surrounding area

7 References


1. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. (1983). Ministry of Natural Resources Sault Ste. Marie District Land Use Guidelines. Toronto Ontario: Queen's Printer for Ontario.

2. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. (1982). Ministry of Natural Resources Northeastern Ontario Strategic Land Use Plan. Toronto Ontario: Queen's Printer for Ontario.

3. The Canada Centre for Mapping, Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources.  National Topographic System. Toronto Ontario: Queen's Printer for Ontario. Paper maps and website used.

4. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Fish ON-Line. Website.

5. MITIG Forest Services Ltd. (1999). The Great Outdoors Map.

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